Immunization Schedule for Babies or Infants

What is Immunization

Immunization (immunisation) is the process of strengthening the immune system of an individual against an agent called immunogen (disease causing agent or foreign body).

Our natural body immunity system is not able to protect the occurrence of some diseases when gets exposed to the foreign body (disease causing agent) thus we need to get some strength from outside in the form of injection through immunization to get prevented from the lethal diseases and health disorders. Immunization process in the timely manner creates better immune response and develops ability in the body to quickly respond and fight with pathogens.

Our body immunity system is an adaptive immune system which adapts power given from outside to fight immunogens. Our immunity system gets improved by the immunization process by developing highly responding and powerful T cells, B cells and antibodies B cells. These immune cells in the body are fully responsible for giving fast response against second encounter by the foreign body.

Immunization is carried out by the health professionals at all the nearest health centres through various easy techniques, most commonly called vaccination. Varieties of needed vaccines are given through the immunization process against various microorganisms causing diseases in order to prepare body immune system against them. Thus, immunization is a most important process which everyone must get after birth to get prevented from the dangerous infections all through the life.

Vaccination is the only way for people to become immune against infectious diseases and live healthy life. Immunization or vaccination is of two type called active immunization and passive immunization.

Active immunization:

Active immunization is the natural process through which an individual gets immunity naturally when comes in contact with a microbe or pathogen. Body immunity system naturally creates antibodies and other defences against disease causing microbe or pathogen. The body becomes immune for whole life on first attack for the same pathogen. Artificial active immunization is also done somewhere when a person does not get naturally in which the particular microbe or its parts are injected into body. Some of the examples of live attenuated vaccines are mumps, measles, MMR, yellow fever, rubella, varicella, rotavirus and influenza.

Passive immunization:

Passive immunization is the immunization through which pre-synthesized elements of the immune system are given to the body manually which body immunity system adapts and gets power. It starts working quickly however short lasting as antibodies have natural tendency to broken down. If our B cells do not produce more antibodies they can be finished. It can be of two types called physiological and artificial passive immunization. Antibodies are transferred physiologically from mother to fetus during pregnancy to provide immunity to fetus. It is called artificial passive immunization when antibodies are administered manually by injection.

How to Get Immunization Timely

Immunization is the big responsibility of the parents especially woman getting pregnant or delivering a baby whether it is a girl baby or boy baby. She must get immunization schedule written well with proper date, time and name of the immunization on the immunization card by the authorized doctor of any nearest health centre. Each and every new born baby has full rights from his//her birth of getting proper vaccination. Immunization according to the schedule is the most important way for everyone to get protected from any serious disease and infection. Parents must get aware and up-to-date about the change immunization schedule to not to miss any vaccination.

It is very necessary for the parents to get confirmed by the doctor about the next vaccination date and parents too must go through the immunization card time to time to check the vaccination schedule and date. Certain groups of people may need special vaccinations.

Some of the communicable diseases causing pathogens (Diphtheria, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Haemophilus Influenzae, Human Papillomavirus, Influenza, Measles, Meningococcal, Mumps, Pertussis, Pneumococcal, Polio, Rotavirus, Rubella, Tetanus, Varicella, Chickenpox and Tuberculosis), causing serious difficulties, paralysis, infertility, loss of hearing and death, for which the fully successful vaccines are available.

Why Vaccination is Necessary and Importance of Immunization

Immunizations according to the immunization schedule are very necessary to be sure that a people living in society, community, country and then world become free of the communicable diseases. Getting your baby vaccinated you help a society, community and country by providing a healthy and bright future. Medical researchers, health professionals and professional medical organizations are working continuously to get new ways and techniques make their country healthy through people.

  • Proper vaccination is the ultimate way to get protected from the infectious diseases which needs a dedicated and full co-operation of every person.
  • It safeguards parents and children too from getting diseases without any medical treatments and investigations.
  • It prevents from serious illnesses, complications and even death.
  • It plays a great in making country a developed country.
  • It reduces the risk of epidemic diseases.
  • All the vaccine preventable diseases can be easily checked by the vaccination.
  • It saves lots of time, health and money of the parents and other family members.
  • It prevents from prolonged disabilities and mental harassment of an individual.
  • It has ability to fully eradicate communicable diseases from the society.

What Happens after Vaccination

Vaccination has been proved to be safe and very effective however some of the mild problems like discomfort, pain, redness, mild fever, tenderness, itching at the site of injection may occur which parents are informed by the health professional during the tome of vaccination.

Role of Immunization throughout the Life

Immunization was started in the early 1987, from then it has great impact on the mortality rate of different age group people especially children. According to the statistics, neonatal mortality rate has been declined by 31% (1 to 8 months of age) and 20% (9 and 59 months of age). Regular immunization generates extra immunity among people body to fight against various infections thus enhances life expectancy by keeping body healthy for long time.

Immunization Schedule

Sl No. 

Age 

Disease 

Vaccination 

1

AT BIRTH

HEPATITIS B

HEP B VACCINE -I

2

AT BIRTH

POLIO

ORAL PV 0 DOSE

3

BIRTH TO 6 WK

TUBERCULOSIS

BCG

4

4 -6 WEEKS

HEPATITIS B

HEP B VACCINE -II

5

6 WEEKS

DIPHTHERIA PERTUSIS TETANUS POLIO

DPT-I OPV -I

6

10 WK

DIPHTHERIA PERTUSIS TETANUS POLIO HEPATITIS B

DPT-II OPV-II HEP B VACCINE III*

7

14 WEEKS

DIPHTHERIA PERTUSIS TETANUS POLIO

DPT-III OPV- III HEP B VACCINE IV*

8

24 WEEKS

HEPATITIS B

HEP B VACCINE III*

9

9 -12MTHS

POLIO MEASLES

OPV-IV MEASLES

10

15-18 MTHS

MUMPS MEASELES RUBELLA

MMR*

11

18 MTHS

DIPHTHERIA PERTUSIS TETANUS POLIO

DPT –BOOSTER I OPV –V

12

24 MTHS

TYPHOID

TYPHOID*

13

4-5 YR

DIPHTHERIA PERTUSIS TETANUS POLIO

DPT BOOSTER – II OPV -VI

 

* Source: Indian Medical Association ima-india.org

Author : Archana Tyagi

I am an Entrepreneur (Director, White Planet Technologies Pvt. Ltd.), a responsible mother of two, a good housewife and a hard working woman. I have done MCA and MBA. I am a passionate writer. I totally believe in hard work as where I am just because of that. It’s my great passion to be busy in my all time. I respect a person who is disciplined and respect others.

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