What is Asperger’s Syndrome Asperger syndrome generally affects people in their childhood from birth and goes side by side all though the life however it does not fall under the category of any disease or illness. One cannot get it by own or get recovery from it. People suffering from the Asperger syndrome generally suffer with the problems of lack of social and communication skills and behaviour while communicating with others however they have normal intelligence and language development. People of any age (such as children, young and adult) who suffer Asperger syndrome have proper ability to think well and learn things however lacks ability to communicate properly with others due to lack of social skills and behaviour. However it has been noted that, people with Asperger syndrome as get older become more able to manage behaviour problem and communicating others skilfully. Babies suffering from the Asperger syndrome generally get diagnosed after the age of 3, 5 or 9. Asperger syndrome is characterized as people having poor social interactions, odd speech patterns, difficulty in reading other’s body language, obsession behaviour, difficulty with dazzling light and sound and etc. Other characteristics of AS may include motor delays, clumsiness, limited interests, and peculiar preoccupations. Adults with AS have trouble demonstrating empathy for others, and social interactions continue to be difficult. Symptoms of Asperger’s Syndrome Babies suffering from the Asperger’s syndrome (one of the autism spectrum disorders, ASD) do not develops same set of characteristics. Asperger’s syndrome is a mild form of autism with characteristic of socializing and communication problem. Some of the symptoms of Asperger’s syndrome in babies are mentioned below: Babies with impair development of crawling, unassisted standing and simple gestures, eye contact, interactions, avoid attention and affection, problems while reacting with activities and objects. Lack of normal non-verbal communication and appropriate facial expressions. Improper development of language among babies according to the normal developmental milestone. Behaviour changes occur and vary from mild unusual to quite aggressive. Impair development of social skills thus unable to communicate properly with others like exhibiting a social smile to other. Poor coordination development of the limbs like hands and feet thus show abnormal reflexes. Presence of behavioural abnormalities like communication and speech because of difficulty in using vocabulary. Unable to focus on the environmental aspects. Delayed development of ability to point towards desired object and use of gestures. Problem in developing motor Skills and may get involve in repetitive interests and behaviours. Babies when grow older may develop sensitivity to the criticism. Causes of Asperger’s Syndrome The causes of Asperger’s syndrome are still unknown however medical experts, researchers and mental health specialists are still...

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Anemia in Babies Anemia is the most common health problem among babies not getting enough nutrition and healthy environment for better growth and development. However, it might be lethal if not identified and treated properly in early stages and lead to some dangerous health problems or even death. Babies, kids an women are highly prone to the anemia. Human body needs iron on daily basis to generate haemoglobin in the body in order to maintain the normal value of haemoglobin in the blood as they gets destroyed on completion of their life (120 days of life). Haemoglobin molecules are also called red blood cells which generally required in the body to carry oxygen to each and every body tissues and cells in order to maintain the normal cells functioning and youthfulness of body. Generally, when babies do not get healthy diet rich in iron and folates, they may suffer anemia however iron deficiency in the body is not the only reason of anemia. There are many causes of anemia like continuous blood loss (in intestinal tract), poor iron absorption in body, genetic and so many. What is Anemia Anemia is the condition of lack of enough and healthy red blood cells or haemoglobin in the blood. Haemoglobin is the most important elements of the blood which gets bind with oxygen and carry all through the body tissue to perform normal functioning. When the level of haemoglobin becomes low below the normal value, our boy does not get enough oxygen and becomes tired. Babies, kids and children are more susceptible to the anemia throughout their growing period as they grow continuously and need more iron to balance haemoglobin in the body. Signs and Symptoms of Anemia in Babies When anemia develops in the body, it shows some signs and symptoms which indicate that baby is suffering from anemia. However, we need to go to the doctor in order to know the real cause of anemia and get proper treatment accordingly. Anemia in its starting stage is called mild anemia and might not show any symptom so growing age babies need constant watch and care by the parents. Some of the common signs and symptoms of anemia in early stage are mentioned below: Irritability Shortness of breathe Desire for unusual foods Eat irregularly or eat less food Feel tired soon or looks weak all the time Develops sore tongue Headache Dizziness and lethargy Signs and symptoms of babies suffering from severe anemia: Blue-tinged eyes or whites of eyes get yellow Loss of appetite Tiredness Brittle nails Yellowish skin color, lips, nails High level of irritability Cold hands and feet Fatigue, light-headedness...

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Jaundice in Newborn Baby Jaundice in newborn babies is also called as neonatal jaundice, neonatal icterus, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, all of which indicates the yellowing of the newborn baby’s skin and other tissues during which bilirubin level in baby blood increases more than 85 μmol/l (5 mg/dL). Increased bilirubin level in the baby blood makes clear that baby suffers clinical jaundice. Baby shows symptoms of blanch skin (means skin becomes yellow on little pressure), yellowing of face, eyes and so many. Bilirubin level increases continuously from face, trunk and then towards the extremities. Neonatal jaundice is common among newborns babies and it affects more than 50-60% of all the newborn babies in first week after birth. Bilirubin is an orange or red pigment in blood which generally produced by the normal breakdown of red blood cells however it gets abnormal due to some problems and starts depositing on fatty tissues under the skin which lead to yellowness of the skin. Newborn babies have more chance to develop jaundice after birth as they produce more bilirubin than adults, they have immature liver which is not able to remove extra bilirubin from blood or bilirubin gets reabsorbed into the intestines before getting out of the body through stool. Bilirubin Levels in Newborn Babies with Jaundice Newborn babies having jaundice have their bilirubin level more than 85 μmol/l (5 mg/dL) which manifests clinical jaundice. Some babies have jaundice restricted to the face and trunk and have bilirubin less than 204 μmol/l (12 mg/dL) which is considered as the less dangerous level. However babies with yellow palms and soles have bilirubin more than 255 μmol/l (15 mg/dL) in the blood which is considered as more serious level. Types of Jaundice in Babies Jaundice among newborn babies may occur due to many reasons which help in categorizing the jaundice types, some of are mentioned below: Physiological or Normal Jaundice: It is the most common type of jaundice among babies and considered as mild jaundice which occurs 2 to 4 days after birth. It occurs because of the immature liver of baby which does slow processing of the bilirubin. Generally, it disappears in 1 to 2 weeks as liver gets matured. Prematurity: Premature babies are more prone to the neonatal jaundice as their liver is not ready to process or excrete bilirubin properly. Jaundice among premature babies needs careful attention by parents and required to be treated under good doctor to correct it immediately as well as avoid complications in later life. Breastfeeding Jaundice: Newborn babies not getting proper breastfeed are more prone to jaundice. As soon as baby gets his/her full nutrition, it starts getting...

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What is Immunization Immunization (immunisation) is the process of strengthening the immune system of an individual against an agent called immunogen (disease causing agent or foreign body). Our natural body immunity system is not able to protect the occurrence of some diseases when gets exposed to the foreign body (disease causing agent) thus we need to get some strength from outside in the form of injection through immunization to get prevented from the lethal diseases and health disorders. Immunization process in the timely manner creates better immune response and develops ability in the body to quickly respond and fight with pathogens. Our body immunity system is an adaptive immune system which adapts power given from outside to fight immunogens. Our immunity system gets improved by the immunization process by developing highly responding and powerful T cells, B cells and antibodies B cells. These immune cells in the body are fully responsible for giving fast response against second encounter by the foreign body. Immunization is carried out by the health professionals at all the nearest health centres through various easy techniques, most commonly called vaccination. Varieties of needed vaccines are given through the immunization process against various microorganisms causing diseases in order to prepare body immune system against them. Thus, immunization is a most important process which everyone must get after birth to get prevented from the dangerous infections all through the life. Vaccination is the only way for people to become immune against infectious diseases and live healthy life. Immunization or vaccination is of two type called active immunization and passive immunization. Active immunization: Active immunization is the natural process through which an individual gets immunity naturally when comes in contact with a microbe or pathogen. Body immunity system naturally creates antibodies and other defences against disease causing microbe or pathogen. The body becomes immune for whole life on first attack for the same pathogen. Artificial active immunization is also done somewhere when a person does not get naturally in which the particular microbe or its parts are injected into body. Some of the examples of live attenuated vaccines are mumps, measles, MMR, yellow fever, rubella, varicella, rotavirus and influenza. Passive immunization: Passive immunization is the immunization through which pre-synthesized elements of the immune system are given to the body manually which body immunity system adapts and gets power. It starts working quickly however short lasting as antibodies have natural tendency to broken down. If our B cells do not produce more antibodies they can be finished. It can be of two types called physiological and artificial passive immunization. Antibodies are transferred physiologically from mother to fetus during pregnancy...

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What is Colic in Babies Baby colic is also called as the infantile colic which generally affects new born babies by showing the symptoms of baby crying episodes (more than three hours a day). The particular reason of this colic is unknown however it has been noted among babies with organic diseases, relationship stress, breastfeeding failure, excess disturbance, postpartum depression, child abuse, shaken baby syndrome and etc. Sometimes it disappears when baby grows to three to four months (or one year) however it needs very close attention by the parents and doctors as well when required. Any baby whether healthy, well-fed or weak may suffer with this problem. Signs and symptoms of Colic in Babies There are no any clear signs and symptoms of the colic however it is defined as the baby crying episodes for three to four hours a day or more among babies of two weeks to four months of age. Baby with colic generally cry in the evening without reason. Baby cry by pulling his/her legs up to the stomach with high pitch having wrinkled brow, flushed face, arched back and clenched hands and fingers. Baby generally cry in normal way because of the reasons like getting wet, soiled, hungry, frightened, weak, tired however baby with colic cries loudly, continuously and excessively on daily basis at the same time during late afternoon or evening. Baby may develop gas problem during colic cry because of lots of air swallowed. How to Cope with Colic in Babies A baby suffering from the colic creates lots of problem for parents and other family members as they become unable to find out the exact reason of crying as baby cry for unknown reasons. They get very fed up physically, mentally and psychologically as it disturbs the family stability and daily routine. Parents develop problems of anxiety, depression, fatigue, early termination of breastfeeding, postpartum depression and stress. It disturbs the sexual life of parents and creates severe marital discord problem. In order to cope with this condition, over feeding a baby should be avoided in the myth to lessen the crying, feeding of high sugar content things should also be avoided (undiluted juices) as it may lead to the gas problem in the intestine and make condition worse. Causes of Colic in Babies The exact and real cause of baby colic unknown however babies with excess cry are found to suffer organic disease like acid reflux, constipation, gastro-oesophageal reflux, intestinal gas, anal fissures, birth complications, depression, lactose intolerance, diarrhoea, allergy from cow milk or formula milk, stressful delivery, subdural hematomas, elevated temperature, irritability, lethargy, poor weight gain, infections, breathing problems,...

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What is Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in New Born Babies Hypoglycaemia in babies means low blood sugar which is also called as the neonatal hypoglycemia. Blood sugar level in the body of a baby is regulated by the key hormone called insulin, the improper functioning of which may decrease or increase the blood sugar level in baby body. It is called neonatal hypoglycemia when the plasma glucose level in the baby body reached less than 30 mg/dL (or 1.65 mmol/L) during first 24 hours after his/her birth or less than 45 mg/dL (or 2.5 mmol/L) in later life due to the common metabolic disorders in newborn. Neonatal hypoglycemia for the long term among babies may lead to the neurologic damage causing mental retardation, repeated seizure, brain damage, delay in proper growth and development, personality disorders, irregular cardiovascular functioning and so many severe health disorders. Insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas plays a great role of storing the extra blood glucose in the body and releasing it according to body needs. Babies Most Vulnerable to Hypoglycemia New born babies who are more susceptible to have low level glucose are mentioned below: It is very dangerous problem among babies however it can be said normal among some new born babies as it is very possible to go down the normal blood sugar level in first few hours after the birth as baby gets separated from her mother placenta (supplying glucose regularly). Some healthy babies are able to cope it very easily however some weak babies having low weight than normal may face this problem and they need immediate feed to remain healthy. Some babies of diabetic mother (diabetes throughout the pregnancy) are more prone to the risk of hypoglycemia after birth. During gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) mother has higher level of blood sugar, managing which the baby body produces more insulin. This extra insulin level creates problem of lower blood sugar level just after the cut off from the regular glucose supply from mother placenta. Prematurely born babies (baby birth before complete term). New born babies with breathing difficulties. Baby born with some type of infection. Some babies having weight and size more than the gestational age. Babies having excess cold and hypothermic body. Babies having small size or low weight than the gestational age (means growth restricted). Babies born with immature liver functions. New born babies having significant stress due to some health problems like lack of oxygen and mother health disorders. Babies born to mother getting treatment with certain drugs like terbutaline. Babies who received their first feeding after six hours or more after birth. Symptoms of Hypoglycemia...

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Congenital Abnormalities in New Born Babies Congenital abnormalities among new born babies are also defined as congenital anomalies, birth defects, congenital disorders, congenital disease, neonatal disease and congenital malformations which occurred among babies due to some improper development, structural and functional anomalies such as kidney, heart, metabolic and other disorders and show their presence at the time of birth. Newborn baby’s death rate is at peak because of this bad cause of congenital anomalies and preterm birth rate however some babies with such disorders suffer various types of chronic illnesses, disabilities and etc all through their life time. In order to reduce and check the increasing rate of congenital anomalies among babies, a big step was taken by the World Health Assembly in 2010 where they adopted a resolution in meeting with all Member States in order to promote the primary prevention measures and health of babies with congenital abnormalities. They implemented some strategies like: It was made necessary to focus on the registration and surveillance systems all over the country. Availability of the highly skilled expertise in order to strengthen the professional capacity to reduce the rate of birth defects. Focusing on the research and studies on aetiology (causes) for the early diagnosis and prevention. Promoting cooperation of the countries all over the world to balance the congenital disorders. Those who affected with structural deformities are termed as congenital anomalies and congenital disorder when affected with genetic abnormalities. Neonatal disorders may be due to the improper intrauterine environment, errors in morphogenesis, chromosomal abnormalities, infection, outer environmental factors, improper vitamin intake, any substance (called teratogen) and etc. Some of the key facts related to the congenital abnormalities are mentioned below: Congenital anomalies affect at least 1 per 33 new born babies which means around 3.2 million babies with birth defects take birth every year. Most of the babies with congenital anomalies of heart defects, neural tube defects and Down syndrome suffer with severe disabilities whole life. Around 270000 newborn babies with birth defects die during first 28 days after birth. Genetic, infectious and environmental congenital disorders are difficult to identify however some congenital anomalies caused by the vaccination, improper folic acid and iodine intake and inadequate antenatal care can be identified and prevented. Types of Congenital Abnormalities in Babies Some of the congenital abnormalities from which a new born baby may be affected are listed below: Oesophageal atresia and fistula: It is a type of congenital malformation to the natural breathing tube (trachea) and feeding tube (oesophagus). Both of the tube may be improperly formed in which upper oesophagus does not develop proper continuation to the stomach and lower...

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Temperature in Babies Keeping baby healthy, safe and secure is the first and foremost responsibility of the parents specially mother as healthy baby has tendency to grow normally in all aspects lie physically, mentally, intellectually and socially. Keeping baby healthy helps him for better growth and development in the happy and healthy environment and makes a baby much closer and responsible to the parents. Baby body temperature is the most important aspect which has to be taken care of by the parents all through his/her childhood in order to let grow a baby in healthy ways. Normal baby body temperature is 36 to 37 degree Celsius (means 96.8 to 98.6 degree Fahrenheit). It needs to be taken care of when body temperature falls below 36 degree Celsius (or 96.8 degree Fahrenheit) or body temperature rises above 37 degree Celsius (98.6 degree Fahrenheit). How to Measure Babies temperature It is called low grade body temperature if body temperature ranges between 37 to 37.5 degree Celsius (or 98.6 to 99.5 degree Fahrenheit). This may be due to the overheated, summer season, overdressed, heavy bedclothes on, over-wrapped baby ad etc however it is not considered as the fever. If baby does not seem to have any symptoms of cold or infection then it can be solved at home by bedding taken off, unwrap baby, light clothing and etc. Regular check up of the body temperature is required till it comes to normal. It is called elevated temperature when body temperature rises to 37.5 or above 38 degree Celsius (or 99.5 to 100.4 degree Fahrenheit). It may be due to the immunisation or infection in the body which needs careful precautions to bring temperature down. Cold sponging with tepid water or bathing in tepid water may help however it is best to consult doctor. It is called fever when it rises above 38 to 38.5 degree Celsius (or 100.4 to 101.3 degree Fahrenheit) due to the severe viral infection, illness or other problem. It is must to consult with doctor immediately. It is called very high temperature when body temperature rises from 38.5 to 39 degree Celsius (or 101.3 to 102.2 degree Fahrenheit) which needs sponge bath and medication in order to reduce the temperature and prevent side effects of high fever. It is called extremely high temperature when body temperature rises from 39 and 40 degree Celsius (or 102.2 to 104 degree Fahrenheit) which needs urgent medical attention as it may lead to the health disorders like fits, febrile convulsion and etc. However, baby body temperature varies according to the body parts from where temperature is taken which are mentioned below: Normal...

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Following daily routine of massaging a new born baby or toddler is very necessary for the baby for his/her proper growth and development. In the modern and competitive world, a mother may not have proper time for massaging her baby two to three time a day because of the hectic schedules and fast speed lifestyles however, body massage is a very important procedure for a growing baby and mother-baby bond and relationship all through the life. Baby body massage is a good way for a mother to get in touch emotionally and establish a meaningful connection between mother and child which in turn brings countless and positive health effects for both. Massaging a baby on daily basis helps him to get better growth and development, ensures him a secure mother-baby relationship and improves his/her self-confidence. It makes a baby more active and boosts weight gain faster. It also helps mother to get free from the post delivery depression problem because of the stress hormones, lack of sleep during night and etc. Some of the points which are mentioned below needs to be taken care of while massaging a baby: Points to Consider before Massage Try to provide baby massage on any fix time on daily massage as baby becomes used to of. Avoid massaging your baby just after the feeding as he/she may develop digestive problem and vomit the milk. Wait for at least 45 mins after feeding to offer him massage. Take care of your baby mood and avoid massage if he/she has any health problem. Before massaging your baby, talk to him that you are going to massage him so that baby may cooperate and enjoy the massage. Do not massage your baby with empty stomach as he/she feel hungry and never cooperate during massage so massage your baby 45 mins or one hour after the feeding. Maintain a calm, peaceful and happy atmosphere by running a slow music in the room to offer him pleasurable massage. Put baby clothes off just before the massage and maintain the normal room temperature according to the season. Do not forget to remove your jewellery like ring, bangles and cut nails as they may harm baby skin and make massage procedure painful. Place your baby in comfortable position whether on your legs or on the changing table on a blanket or towel. Talk to your baby regularly all through the massage procedure, it helps you to increase mother baby relationship, deviate baby mind and enhance love bond. If it is your first time, then it is best to have massage training under any good instructor or have proper guide with...

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Soothing a crying baby is very necessary and every mother must know the reasons of crying a baby and techniques to soothe him anytime. Baby cry may be of different types according to the need and health problems he/she faced so, a mother must know how to soothe a crying baby by fulfilling his/her needs. However, two to three hours of crying is normal for new born baby but it needs careful watch if a baby cry continuously or during night or at any fix time of the day. Crying of a baby is the best way of communication to his/her mother and other dear ones providing care in order to get a quick response about the needs. However, sometimes it becomes so hard of realising a baby crying which needs immediate attention and becomes so necessary to consult a doctor. Some of the best ways of soothing a crying baby are mentioned below: After spending a long time of nine months inside the mother womb, a baby becomes used to of the limited area he/she moves his/her limbs, soothe, dark and cool environment and loving touch of the mother so, a baby cry outside in absence of such environment. A mother can soothe her baby by providing secure and safety environment like soft clothing, wrapping while sleeping and offering touch to her body and breast feeding while sleeping. Hold your baby close by placing into your arms and move for sometime or use rocking chair if already tired. Soothe a baby using baby swings in rhythmic motions which makes him calm down soon. Try to make available him with good vibrating sounds of washing machine, dryer and etc which provides him comfort and rest. Sometimes, fathers are king for a baby and their strong and warm arms provide quick soothe to a baby. Wrapping a baby into thin, cotton and lightweight blanket including her/his arms provides him a wonderful calming effect and secure sleep. Sleep with your baby by placing him on your chest and stomach which makes him soothe when he/she listen pumping sound of your heart and gurgling sound of stomach. Play slow music in his/her room or provide sound of running water. Say something directly to his/her ear quietly again and again which makes him feel the availability of womb environment. Ensure that he/she is free of bloating and gas problems as new born babies are more prone to it. If he/she suffers gas problems try to lay him down on knees and provide gentle rub to her/his back, move his/her leg in bicycle motion while he lying on the back and must consult to...

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